History Of Zero In Maths Wikipedia
In calculus a limit is the value that a function or sequence approaches as the input or index approaches some value. The first abstraction which is shared by many animals was probably that of numbers.
It was a co production between the open university and the bbc and aired in october 2008 on bbc four.
History of zero in maths wikipedia. Many definitions include 0 as a natural number and then the only natural number not to be positive. Limits are essential to calculus and mathematical analysis in general and are used to define continuity derivatives and integrals. In the classical period of indian mathematics 400 ad to 1200 ad important contributions were made by scholars like aryabhata brahmagupta bhaskara ii and varahamihira.
The history of mathematics can be seen as an ever increasing series of abstractions. He listed several rules for calculating with zero which would be familiar to use today including the sum of zero and a positive number is positive and the sum of zero and zero is zero. Indian mathematics emerged in the indian subcontinent from 1200 bc until the end of the 18th century.
Babylonian mathematics were written using a sexagesimal base 60 numeral system. There is no common notation for empty matrices but most computer algebra systems allow creating and computing with them. Zero is an even number because it is divisible by 2 with no remainder.
However the word for zero in english again comes from arabic rather than hindi. From this derives the modern day usage of 60 seconds in a minute 60 minutes in an hour and 360 60 x 6 degrees in a circle as well as the use of seconds and minutes of arc to denote fractions of a degree. Zero as a number brahmagupta period ancient literature shows that in india either the symbol or the word kha was used for zero around 200 ad.
While he did not use a symbol for zero the french mathematician georges ifrah argues that knowledge of zero was implicit in aryabhatas place value system as a place holder for the powers of ten with null coefficients. Zero is a number which quantifies a count or an amount of null size. The material was written and presented by university of oxford professor marcus du sautoy.
The realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges for example have something in common namely quantity of their members. The story of maths is a four part british television series outlining aspects of the history of mathematics. It was the indian mathematician brahmagupta 628 ad who used zero as number for the frst time.
For example if a is a 3 by 0 matrix and b is a 0 by 3 matrix then ab is the 3 by 3 zero matrix corresponding to the null map from a 3 dimensional space v to itself while ba is a 0 by 0 matrix. 0 is neither positive nor negative. Agan the usage was to ndcate the empty place.